Monday, November 28, 2011

Dungun (Heritiera littoralis)

The Dungun (Heritiera littoralis) is a nationally endangered mangrove tree from the family Malvaceae.

Dungun (Heritiera littoralis)
This tree can be seen at several of our mangrove forests, including Pulau Tekong, Pulau Ubin, Pulau Semakau, Pasir Ris, Sungei Buloh Wetland Reserve, Kranji, Mandai and Lim Chu Kang.

Dungun (Heritiera littoralis)
The tree has a buttressed trunk and dark or grey, fissured bark.

Dungun (Heritiera littoralis)
It has simple, alternate, oblong leaves with silvery undersides, due to the presence of greyish-white scales. The leaves are stiff and leathery.

Dungun (Heritiera littoralis)
The flowers are small, hairy and occur in clusters. There are no petals. Male and female flowers occur on different trees.

Dungun (Heritiera littoralis)
Flowers have a cup-shaped calyx can be reddish or yellowish. Female flowers occur in small clusters, while male flowers are more numerous but smaller in size.

The fruits are woody with a keel on one side, much like boats. They are dispersed by water.

The wood is heavy and very durable, used for making boats, masts and houses. It is also used for firewood and making paper. The bark contains tannin. Fruits and seeds are used to treat diarrhea and dysentery.


  • Chong, K. Y., H. T. W. Tan & R. T. Corlett, 2009. A Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore: Native, Naturalised and Cultivated Species. Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. Singapore. 273 pp.
  • Giesen, W., S. Wulffraat, M. Zieren & L. Scholten. 2006. Mangrove guidebook for Southeast Asia. RAP Publication 2006/07. FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific & Wetlands International. Bangkok. 769 pp.
  • Ng, P. K. L. & N. Sivasothi. 1999. A guide to the mangroves of Singapore 1 : the ecosystem & plant diversity. Singapore Science Centre. Singapore. 168 pp.

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